Exam 4: Lower Limb

P equals MD

Try not to let the apathy roll back in during this unit in the gross lab. It’s going to be different from unit three, and remarkably less exciting. However, the dissections are rather… gruesome. We had our genital dissection on Halloween: trick or treat!? The first few dissections in the perineal region are kind of difficult and boring. Day one: it’s a lot of fat and anus going on down there. Get comfy.

Now if you haven’t yet realized the blinding brilliance that is Dr. Goebel, you certainly will see it this unit; because where the sun doesn’t shine, Goebel does. The perineum is a complex arrangement of fascia and muscular layers and, honestly, it is a real mess down there. He has constructed some FANTASTIC diagrams that will save your ass this unit. I redrew them with different colored pens to represent the different fascia layers; or you can…

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Shoulder Joint & Girdle Muscles & Actions

Tiger Training

Today I’m studying for the AFAA Personal Fitness Trainer Certification. My focus is the shoulder joint and shoulder girdle muscles and their actions. I’m creating a workable schema to fit all these bits of information together. I will remember the muscles responsible for the following shoulder joint actions (prime movers in italics; assistors in regular):

  • Flexion: Anterior Deltoid, Pectoralis Major (clavicular), Coracobrachialis, Subscapularis^, Biceps (short head)
  • Extension: Pectoralis Major (sternal), Latissimus Dorsi, Teres Major, Posterior Deltoid, Triceps (long head)
  • Abduction: Medial Deltoid, Supraspinatus, Anterior Deltoid, Pectoralis Major (clavicular)*, Subscapularis^, Biceps (long head)
  • Adduction: Pectoralis Major (sternal), Latissimus Dorsi, Teres Major, Coracobrachialis*, Subscapularis*, Biceps (short head), Triceps (long head)
  • Internal Rotation: Subscapularis, Teres Major, Anterior Deltoid, Pectoralis Major (clavicular), Pectoralis Major (sternal), Coracobrachialis*, Latissimus Dorsi, Biceps (short head)
  • External Rotation: Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, Posterior Deltoid, Coracobrachialis+
  • Horizontal Adduction: Anterior Deltoid, Pectoralis Major (clavicular)…

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Muscles of the Face: Temporalis and Masseter

Rachel Carter

I have decided to do a number of posts focusing on different muscles and how they work.  Today I am looking at two: the temporalis and masseter.

001Skull front

The temporalis is the muscle that covers the temples, or the squishy areas beside the eyes on the side of the head.  It is relatively flat and fan shaped and attaches to the temporal fossa on one side and the mandible on the other.  It inserts itself behind the zygomatic arch to attach to the mandible.  Normally, it is a muscle that is covered by hair but on those with no hair you can see it bulge ever so slightly when the jaw moves.  The temporalis has two functions, one is to help elevate the mandible when closing and opened jaw.  It also can assist in a retraction movement, pulling the jaw back from a pushed forward position.


The masseter is the main…

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Microbes Have Greater Effect on Climate Change than Previously Thought

Scott Houghton's WordPress Blog

The gasses and other various microbes that are trapped beneath permafrost in places like Russia and Sweden have been a growing concern for the climatology community. Now, according a study performed by scientists from Australia, Sweden, and the United states, there is a single microbe that plays a disturbingly large role in perpetuating climate change: Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis.

Could microbes be having a  greater effect on climate change than we originally considered?
Could microbes be having a greater effect on climate change than we originally considered?

This discovery will surely change the way we think about the climate, as it shifts our understanding of how gasses are released from these microbes when they are thawed from permafrost. Previously, scientists linked the release of carbon in the form of methane molecules to areas highly populated with these microbes, but were unsure of its particular role.

Now, scientists can make their predictions of how impactful these microbes are in terms of overall climate change based on…

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101 about Breathing


Since we are called Breathe, and breathing is the most fundamental principle of Pilates, we’ve decided to delve slightly deeper into the mechanics of breathing. You would think that something so essential to life would come naturally, but like everything else, most of us have deviated a long way from it.


The diaphragm is a parachute-shaped muscle that allows your lungs to move up and down in unison with breathing. Your diaphragm will often control whether or not the rest of your upper body muscles are connecting properly to your abs, and then down towards your hips . If you tend to arch your lower back a lot, think of your obliques and diaphragm as the muscles that control and counteract the arch of the low back and help pull you away from this extension.

Breathing without use of the diaphragm results in an overutilisation of the accessory muscles namely the scalenes…

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Relativity Girl

How much brain anatomy do you remember from high school? Forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, what do they all do again?



  • Frontal – Planning, organizing, problem solving, memory, impulse control, decision making
  • Parietal – Sensory information (hot, cold, pain), orientation (up, down), balance
  • Temporal – Sound, speech, language, memory, fear
  • Occipital – Shape and color perception, seeing, reading
  • Cerebellum – Balance, movement, coordination
  • Brain stem – Breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, swallowing

Peeling back a layer, we get to the center of our emotional life – the limbic system.

limbic system

  • Thalamus – The brain’s relay station, channeling impulses from most of the senses. Important in sorting the importance and significance of some information over others.  The “waiting room” where sensory information is sent before going to the cerebral cortex for processing.
  • Hypothalamus – Moods and motivation, sexual maturation, temperature regulation, hormones, hunger, thirst, using both electrical and chemical messages
  • Amygdala – Center…

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The Scapula

Rachel Carter

scapula 7

The scapula are the two bones that rest against the back of your rib cage.  They attach your arms to your back, kind of.  The fact that they are not actually attached to your rib cage through bone connections means they can slide around, giving your the full range of motion in your arms and shoulders.

scapula 1back 1

The scapula is also know as the shoulder blade.  When you lift your arms up, it raises the scapula bones, and then rotates them slightly.  The movement is called abduction and refers to the movement away from the medial line (movement away from the center line of the body).

scapula 2back 2

Moving the arms in front of the body glides the scapula over the rib cage towards the front of the body pushing the shoulders towards the front of the body and scapula away from each other slightly, a movement called protraction.  The trapezius muscles…

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